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中国梨喀木虱对六种非寄主越冬植物的适应性
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引用本文:赵龙龙,高欣,薛涪,冀佳悦,魏明峰,马瑞燕.中国梨喀木虱对六种非寄主越冬植物的适应性.植物保护学报,2024,51(3):592-599
DOI:10.13802/j.cnki.zwbhxb.2024.2023066
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作者单位E-mail
赵龙龙 山西农业大学果树研究所, 晋中 030815  
高欣 山西农业大学植物保护学院, 晋中 030801  
薛涪 山西农业大学植物保护学院, 晋中 030801  
冀佳悦 山西农业大学果树研究所, 晋中 030815  
魏明峰 山西农业大学棉花研究所, 运城 044000  
马瑞燕 山西农业大学植物保护学院, 晋中 030801 mary@sxau.edu.cn 
中文摘要:为明确中国梨喀木虱Cacopsylla chinensis越冬代(也称冬型梨木虱)在非寄主越冬植物(苹果树、桃树、樱桃树、李树、杏树、山楂树)上的适应性,于实验室内测定其在选择性条件下对不同植物组合的趋向偏好及产卵特点,并测定非选择性条件下其在不同植物上的存活、产卵以及寄主转换后的死亡情况。结果显示,在选择性条件下,当有寄主植物梨树枝条存在时,冬型梨木虱对其的趋向占比为 24.29%,而对苹果树、桃树、李树、杏树、樱桃树和山楂树枝条的趋向占比分别为 25.76%、20.81%、13.26%、8.25%、4.01%和3.62%,在梨树和苹果树枝条上的产卵量为111.00粒和7.67粒,未在其他果树枝条上产卵;当无寄主植物梨树枝条存在时,冬型梨木虱对苹果树枝条的趋向占比最高,为 35.45%,明显高于对樱桃树、杏树、桃树、山楂树和李树枝条的趋向占比,分别为 15.96%、13.19%、13.05%、12.41%和9.95%,且在苹果树、樱桃树、李树、桃树、杏树和山楂树枝条上的产卵量分别为14.25、9.75、7.25、4.75、2.75和1.00粒,总产卵量下降。在非选择性条件下,梨树枝条上冬型梨木虱的致死中时为17.11 d,在其他非寄主果树枝条上的致死中时集中在7.00~9.00 d;其在梨树枝条上的14 d累计产卵量最高,为136.67粒,而在苹果树、樱桃树、桃树、杏树、山楂树和李树枝条上的14 d累计产卵量大幅减少,分别为41.00、11.30、5.33、1.00、1.00和0.67粒,在梨树枝条上卵的孵化率为74.26%,在苹果树枝条上卵的孵化率为24.80%,在其他果树枝条上卵极少孵化。冬型梨木虱从非寄主苹果树转到寄主梨树时对其存活影响较小,第8 天累计死亡率为13.33%,相反,从寄主梨树转到非寄主苹果树上后对其存活影响明显,第8天累计死亡率达到了81.67%。表明所测试的非寄主植物均不能满足冬型梨木虱存活和子代发育所需营养,仅可作为临时替代寄主或越冬过渡寄主,非寄主植物苹果树可作为致死性诱集植物用于冬型梨木虱的防治。
中文关键词:中国梨喀木虱  非寄主植物    苹果  越冬  适应性  产卵
 
Adaptability of the winter form of Chinese pear psylla Cacopsylla chinensis on six non-host overwintering plants
Author NameAffiliationE-mail
Zhao Longlong Pomology Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Jinzhong 030815, Shanxi Province, China  
Gao Xin College of Plant Protection, Shanxi Agricultural University, Jinzhong 030801, Shanxi Province, China  
Xue Fu College of Plant Protection, Shanxi Agricultural University, Jinzhong 030801, Shanxi Province, China  
Ji Jiayue Pomology Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Jinzhong 030815, Shanxi Province, China  
Wei Mingfeng Cotton Research Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Yuncheng 044000, Shanxi Province, China  
Ma Ruiyan College of Plant Protection, Shanxi Agricultural University, Jinzhong 030801, Shanxi Province, China mary@sxau.edu.cn 
Abstract:To clarify the adaptability of Chinese pear psylla Cacopsylla chinensis on non-host overwintering plants, dormant twigs of apple, peach, cherry, plum, and hawthorn were selected. The preference and oviposition behavior of the winter form of Chinese pear psylla on different plant combinations were tested under selective conditions. Additionally, the survival rate, oviposition, and mortality of the winter form of Chinese pear psylla after plant switching were investigated under laboratory condition. Results under selective conditions showed that, when the host plant was present, the winter form of Chinese pear psylla exhibited a preference for pear twigs (24.29%), followed by apple (25.76%), peach (20.81%), plum (13.26%), apricot (8.25%), cherry (4.01%), and hawthorn (3.62%) twigs. The average number of eggs laid on pear and apple twigs was 111.00 and 7.67, respectively, with no eggs found on other fruit tree twigs. In the absence of a host plant, the preference ratio of winter form of Chinese pear psylla for apple twigs (35.45%) was significantly higher than that for cherry (15.96%), apricot (13.19%), peach (13.05%), hawthorn (12.41%), and plum (9.95%). The average number of eggs laid on apple, cherry, plum, peach, apricot, and hawthorn twigs was 14.25, 9.75, 7.25, 4.75, 2.75, and 1.00, respectively, with a decrease in the total egg numbers. Under non-selective condition, the median lethal time of winter form of Chinese pear psylla on pear tree twig was 17.11 d, while other non-host plants, it ranged from 7.00 d to 9.00 d. The cumulative number of eggs laid by winter form of Chinese pear psylla on pear tree twigs was the highest (136.67) over 14 days, whereas on apple, cherry, peach, apricot, hawthorn, and plum tree twigs, it was significantly reduced (41.00, 11.30, 5.33, 1.00, 1.00, and 0.67, respectively). The egg hatching rate was highest on pear twigs (74.26%), followed by apple tree twigs (24.80%), while eggs laid on other fruit tree twigs rarely hatched. Survival of winter form of Chinese pear psylla was less affected when transferred from non-host apple tree twigs to host pear tree twigs, with a cumulative mortality of 13.33% on the 8th day. On the contrary, survival was significantly affected when transferred from host pear tree twigs to non-host apple tree twigs, with a cumulative mortality of 81.67% on the 8th day. In summary, the tested non-host plants were found inadequate to meet the survival and offspring development needs of the winter form of Chinese pear psylla and could only serve as temporary substitutes or overwintering transition hosts. Apple, a non-host plant, could be used as a lethal trap plant for the control of winter form of Chinese pear psylla.
keywords:Cacopsylla chinensis  non-host plant  pear  apple  overwintering  adaptability  oviposition
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